What are the similarities between ER and EL?

·       To develop the skill, learners need simplified text that is at their comfort zone

·       Both take a LOT of time

·       Both aim to improve automaticity of recognition and the chunking of text

What are the differences?

·       EL is constrained by time. In ER we can stop and go back easily.

·       In EL it is more difficult to use compensatory strategies when incomprehension occurs due to time difficulties

·       If we cannot work out what a string of sounds correspond to which words in EL, there is nothing we can do. In ER we can look in a dictionary (most learners do not know how to use pronunciation dictionaries).

·       EL often involves the learner and an interlocutor, ER only the learner and a text.

·       Sounds change from speaker to speaker and because of accents, background noise etc, and make words more difficult to acquire. In reading the spelling / form is constant.

·       Many ‘pre-view’ strategies are unavailable to listeners – skimming and scanning for example.

·       The reader can control the speed at which she reads, but the listener cannot (without special recording equipment).

·       It is easier for a reader to stop and review / look up words.

·       Meanings often change due to changes in stress, intonation, pitch and volume etc.

What does this imply?

·       Listening to a given text will be harder than reading the same text

·       It is likely that a much larger store of receptive listening vocabulary is needed to understand a given text than it is read

·       The learners need to how changes in stress, intonation, pitch and volume etc. can affect meaning.

·       They need to know alternative pronunciations for words

        se-cre-ta-ry  ó se-cre-tary           RE-cord   ó re-CORD

·       The learners will need to know how sounds change, elide, blend and intrude at times. So they know what to expect.

o     How are you  ->    How-uh-you              going to ->    gonna

o     don’t do that    ->    don do tha

o     an umbrella     ->    anumbrella

o     raw eggs ->    rawreggs