What are the similarities between ER and EL?
· To develop the skill, learners need simplified text that is at their comfort zone
· Both take a LOT of time
· Both aim to improve automaticity of recognition and the chunking of text
What are the differences?
· EL is constrained by time. In ER we can stop and go back easily.
· In EL it is more difficult to use compensatory strategies when incomprehension occurs due to time difficulties
· If we cannot work out what a string of sounds correspond to which words in EL, there is nothing we can do. In ER we can look in a dictionary (most learners do not know how to use pronunciation dictionaries).
· EL often involves the learner and an interlocutor, ER only the learner and a text.
· Sounds change from speaker to speaker and because of accents, background noise etc, and make words more difficult to acquire. In reading the spelling / form is constant.
· Many ‘pre-view’ strategies are unavailable to listeners – skimming and scanning for example.
· The reader can control the speed at which she reads, but the listener cannot (without special recording equipment).
· It is easier for a reader to stop and review / look up words.
· Meanings often change due to changes in stress, intonation, pitch and volume etc.
What does this imply?
· Listening to a given text will be harder than reading the same text
· It is likely that a much larger store of receptive listening vocabulary is needed to understand a given text than it is read
· The learners need to how changes in stress, intonation, pitch and volume etc. can affect meaning.
· They need to know alternative pronunciations for words
se-cre-ta-ry ó se-cre-tary RE-cord ó re-CORD
· The learners will need to know how sounds change, elide, blend and intrude at times. So they know what to expect.
o How are you -> How-uh-you going to -> gonna
o don’t do that -> don do tha
o an umbrella -> anumbrella
o raw eggs -> rawreggs