Extensive Reading Research articles online

Published papers and manuscripts available in MS Word, PDF or HTML format.
See also the ER Foundation’s Annotated Bibliography with 500+ entries

(Some links may be dead)

Barfield, Andy — Extensive Reading: from graded to authentic text
Studies in Foreign Language Teaching, 19, 25-48 (Foreign Language Center, University of Tsukuba).

Barfield, Andy — The promise and practice of extensive reading: An interview with George Jacobs and Willy Renandya.  Literacy Across Cultures, 2000. 3(2), 25-30

Bell, Timothy — Extensive Reading: Speed and Comprehension InThe Reading Matrix, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2001. This study shows significant increases in reading speed and comprehension for the ‘extensive’ group over the ‘intensive’ group.

Brierley, Mark.  Assessing extensive reading through written responses and comprehension tests.

Chow, Ping-Ha & Chi-Ting Chou — Evaluating Sustained Silent Reading in Reading Classes, The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 11, November 2000 .

Haver, Johanna — Rebuttal of Dr. Stephen Krashen’s Critique of Structured English Immersion See also Krashen’s original article below.

Heal, Louise — Motivating large reading classes The Language Teacher 22(12), December 1998 [Link dead]

Jacobs, G. M., & Gallo, P. (2002, February). Reading alone together: Enhancing extensive reading via student-student cooperation in second-language instruction. Reading Online, 5(6)

Kredátusová, M. The Benefits of Extensive Reading in EFL Thesis

Krashen, Stephen — More Smoke and Mirrors: A Critique of the National Reading Panel (NRP) Report on “Fluency” Phi Delta Kappan, October, 2001

Krashen, Stephen — Comments on Johanna Haver, Structured English Immersion (2003) See also J. Haver’s rebuttal listed above.

Lituanas, Propitas M, George M Jacobs & Willy Renandya — A Study Of Extensive Reading With Remedial Reading Students (MS Word document) Chapter in a volume published by the International Reading Association: Mee, Cheah Yin & Moi, Ng Seok, Eds. (1999). Language Instructional Issues in Asian Classrooms. pp 89-104. This paper reports a study that used a pre-test, post-test control group design to measure the effectiveness of extensive reading with remedial reducing students in a Philippines secondary school. Results suggest that extensive reading led to greater gains that traditional reading instruction.

Mason, Beniko and Stephen Krashen — Can We Increase the Power of Reading by Adding More Output and/or Correction? (manuscript)

Mason, Beniko (2004) — The effect of adding supplementary writing to an extensive reading program

Mason, Beniko (2005) — Extensive Reading; Why do it, how to do it, how not to do it

Ono, Leslie, Richard Day, & Kenton Harsch (2004) — Tips for Reading Extensively Forum, Vol 42.4, p. 12

Pino-Silva, Juan — Extensive Reading Through the Internet: Is It Worth the While? The Reading Matrix, Vol. 6, No. 1, April 2006.

Powell, Stephen John — Extensive Reading and Its Role In Japanese High Schools (manuscript)

Powell, Stephen John — Extensive Reading and its Role in the Future of English Language Teaching in Japanese High Schools The Reading Matrix, Vol. 5, No. 2, September 2005.

Renandya, W. A., B. R. S. Rajan,, & G. M. Jacobs — ER with Adult Learners of English as a Second Language (1999). Extensive reading with adult learners of English as a second language. RELC Journal, 30, 39-61. This article reports a study that looked at the effect of reading habits on the second language learning of government officials from Vietnam learning English in Singapore. Results suggest that extensive reading is a significant predictor of second language proficiency.

Robb, Thomas N. & Bernard Susser — Extensive Reading vs Skills Building in an EFL Context Reading in a Foreign Language,12(2), 1989

Rosszell, Rory — The role of Extensive Reading in second language vocabulary acquisition. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds.) JALT2005 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT, (2006). (PDF 753kb)

Rosszell, Rory — Two key issues to consider in the design of an effective ER program: Self-selection and integration. In The Language Teacher, 31(12), pp. 3-8. Tokyo: JALT (2007). © JALT &amp Rory Rosszell. (PDF 468kb)

Seow, Anthony — What Do We Really Want Out of USSR?
Teaching of English Language and Literature (TELL) Journal,
Volume 15, Number 2, November 1999

Schmidt, K. (2007). Five factors to consider in implementing a university extensive reading programThe Language Teacher, 31(5), 11-14. In preparation for this article, Ken interviewed eight experienced practitioners in Japan about their work with extensive reading. Substantial interview excerpts and an expanded version of the article are provided.

Susser, Bernard & Thomas Robb — EFL Extensive Reading Instruction: Research and Procedure JALT Journal, 12(2), November 1990

Brown, R, R. Waring and S. Donkaewbua. 2008. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language. Volume 20, Number 1, October 2008

This study examined the rate at which English vocabulary was acquired from the 3 input modes of reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. It selected 3 sets of 28 words within 4 frequency bands and administered 2 test types immediately after the reading and listening treatments, 1 week later and 3 months later. The results showed that new words could be learned incidentally in all 3 modes, but that most words were not learned. Items occurring more frequently in the text were more likely to be learned and were more resistant to decay. The data demonstrated that, on average, when subjects were tested by unprompted recall, the meaning of only 1 of the 28 items met in either of the reading modes and the meaning of none of the items met in the listening-only mode, would be retained after 3 months

Cutting, M. Making the transition to effective self-access ListeningThe Language Teacher, 28(6), 21-24.

Davies, Helen. 1980. Focus on Listening. Alberta Modern Language Journal, v18 n3 p25-42 Spr 1980

This paper presents formats for activities and sources of materials which focus on developing students’ listening skills and their awareness of the steps in the listening process. The activities are intended for the early stages of language learning and are divided according to their appropriateness for intensive or extensive listening. Intensive listening involves recognizing an auditory pattern that was formed mentally the first time a particular word or structure was recognized. Three types of activity are suggested to develop the intensive listening skill: (1) activities appropriate for the presentation of new structural or vocabulary items; (2) activities that focus on structure alone; and (3) activities that focus on listening for the message. Extensive listening is more general; it deals with unknown material and comes from a variety of sources. The activities designed to develop extensive listening skills focus on: (1) developing passive vocabulary; (2) increasing the ability to cope with unfamiliar material; (3) developing the ability to derive meaning from words and phrases rather than from a word-by-word dissection; and (4) developing the ability to listen selectively.

Donkaewbua, S. 2007.  The effects of previous partial word knowledge on vocabulary learning through listening. Ph.D. Thesis Victoria University, Wellington, NZ.

Holden, W. Extensive Listening: A new approach to an old problem

Kim, J.-H 2004. Intensive or Extensive Listening for L2 beginners. English Teaching. VOL 59; NUMB 3, pages 93-114

As many Korean teachers apply the method of intensive listening practice to improve their students’ listening competence, this researcher suggests they evaluate the effect of that approach rather than blindly following current conventions. This study empirically examines the effects of intensive vs. extensive listening practice for the development of L2 listening comprehension. One hundred seventy-nine subjects in the 1st grade of middle school were divided into High and Low groups after taking a level test. While 71 of the extensive listening group listened to 40 short stories for 15 weeks, 108 of the intensive 1istening group listened to the same 5 stories 8 different times in the same period. Afterward an L2 listening comprehension test was administered and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed on the resulting data. The covariate was the time spent on L2 listening outside the class. The result showed that extensive listening practice was more effective than intensive for the low level students. The findings suggest that for the purpose of encouraging lower level beginners’ listening practice, extensive listening training is preferable.

Mac Yin Mee.1990.  Teaching Listening – an overviewThe English Teacher Vol XIX

Waring, R. 2008. Getting started with Extensive Listening. Cosmopier.

Waring R. 2008 Starting an Extensive Listening program. Extensive reading Journal v1

Wei Yu  Use Extensive Listening To Improve Students’ Listening Ability 作者/来源:位育中学 马婕    发布时间:2007-04-08

劉明明    Extensive or Repeated Listening? A comparison of their effects on the  use of listening strategies.

This study investigated whether/how extensive listening and repeated listening 
differentially affect listeners’ listening strategy use. Ten university sophomore students participated in this study. Each of them engaged in extensive listening (listening to five different stories) and repeated listening (listening to one story five times) respectively. The verbal reports of their listening strategy use were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed. ANOVA repeated measures tests showed that the participants used significantly more listening strategies including metacognitive and cognitive listening strategies while engaging in repeated listening than in extensive listening. They also used significantly more types of listening strategies in repeated listening than in extensive listening. At a descriptive level, listeners used progressively fewer and fewer listening strategies throughout extensive 
listening, but they used more and more listening strategies throughout repeated listening. These results suggest that contrary to popular belief, repeated listening


(Many of these references came from extensivereading.net – Thanks Tom)